José de San Martín
Liberator of Southern Cone of
FIRST PHASE OF SAN MARTÍN'S LIFE
de San Martín was born a South American Spanish citizen in Yapeyú, in
Martín lived in
18, 1810, the cabildo (town council)
SECOND PHASE OF SAN MARTÍN'S LIFE
San Martín created the Granaderos cavalry corps
led a brilliant victory over the Spanish at
was promoted to the rank of general in the Army of Alto Perú (
1814-1817 As governor of the Andean province of Cuyo, he spent these years organizing his troops in Cuyo, but he received no new support from Buenos Aires.
The Chilean independence leader, Bernardo O'Higgins, who had earlier been defeated by the Spanish royalist forces, joined San Martín in Cuyo.
1816 During an interim while organizing his troops in Cuyo, he left his army to lead the Argentinian separatists' Congreso de Tucumán. This congress declared formal independence and named the new country the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
led his new forces on a brilliant heroic trek over the Andes in winter, the
result of which was to take the Spanish colonial forces by surprise in a
brilliant victory at
another brilliant maneuver he led his troops to victory over the Spanish forces
the capital of
1820 San Martín moved his forces north to Perú by sea because he had allied with Lord Cochrane, a British Admiral, whose navy became, in effect, San Martín's navy against the Spanish enemy.
criollo and other colonial interests and forces in Perú, meanwhile, were not
fully ready to revolt against
defeated the Spanish army at
San Martín made a long, slow march to
Martín's march to
that 1821 is the year in which
Unfortunately for San Martín, Lord Cochrane deserted with his unruly forces.
Martín went to
THIRD PHASE OF SAN MARTÍN'S LIFE
1822 San Martín's wife dies.
1824 August 6, 1824, at the battle of Junín, Bolívar, without San Martín participation, defeated a Spanish royalist army.
9, 1824, in the battle of Ayacucho, Perú,
Martín, suffering from tuberculosis, sails to Europe and never returns to Latin
America except for a brief moment aboard a ship in the
1850 San Martín dies in Boulogne-sur-Mer, Calais, France, near the English Channel.