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POPULATION: 54,500,000 (2014; in Aztlán and across the United States).

REGION (roughly and unofficially within territory of the United States: the states conquered by the United States in the War with Mexico (1846-1848) including California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado) 

CAPITAL (Unofficial): Los Angeles 4,900,000 (Latin population of total L.A. population; 48% of total L.A. metropolitan area; 2014)



            1100 (ca.)     Aztecs (aka. Mexicas) leave Aztlán on century-long treck to Tenochtitlán; the date indicates "long ago in the time of myth and legend".

            1325             Aztecs / Mexicas arrive at prophesied island in lake with eagle biting a serpent and sitting on a cactus: Tenochtitlán.

            1521             Aztecs conquered by Hernán Cortés.

            1540-1541    Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (AKA Coronado; 1510-1554), a Spanish conquistador, explored the western regions (from the Colorado River west through New Mexico and Kansas) in 1540-1542; ostensibly, he was searching for the so-called Seven Cities of Gold, or the mythical Seven Cities of Cíbola. For an excellent account of the archeology and anthropology of this region, with a discussion of topics such as “Hispanic Colorado,” “Inhabiting the Lower Purgatory” [river], “Plazas and Community,” etc., see the book by Bonnie Clark, On the Edge of Purgatory; An Archeology of Place in Hispanich Colorado, University of Nebraska Press, 2011. (See 1969 below).

            1607             Santa Fe, Nuevo México founded by Spanish explorers, missionaries, and conquistadors.

            1769             San Diego, California, founded by Gaspar de Portolá and Junípero Serra: series of Franciscan missions extended throughout Alta California.

            1821             Aztlán made into states in independent nation of México.

            1836             Texas independent from México, forms Lone Star Republic, and then joins as a state of U.S.A.

            1846-1848    Mexican-American War.

            1848             Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo by which Aztlán (California, Nevada, Arizona, Nuevo México, Colorado, Utah) is incorporated into U.S.A.

            1927-1993    César Chávez (born Yuma, Arizona).

            1929             League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) founded by Benjamín Garza.

            1952             McCarran-Walter Act: immigrants over 50 years old allowed to qualify for citizenship in Spanish.

                                 César Chávez: organizer for Community Service Organization in California apricot orchards.

            1962             César Chávez founds United Farm Workers Union in Delano, California. (Chávez’ annual salary: $5,000).

            1965             UFW leads table grape boycott.

            1968             César Chávez fasts for 25 days to reaffirm principles of non-violence.

            1969             Crusade for Justice Youth Conference, Denver, Colorado adopts The Spiritual Plan of Aztlán (written by Alurista): see 1540 above.

            1988             Chávez fasts for 36 days protesting pesticide poisoning of grape workers and their children.

            1991             Chávez received Águila Azteca award (México’s national prize for achievement for Mexicans outside México).

            1994             Chávez posthumously received Presidential Medal of Freedom in USA

            1998             California: Proposition 227 ends bilingual education.

            2005             Antonio Villaraigosa (born Antonio Ramón Villar, 1953 - present) elected mayor of Los Angeles; reelected 2009; chair of the Democratic Party National Convention, 2012.


GOVERNMENT:  Spiritual Republic (for artists, social activists), representative democracy within political system of U.S.A.



            Mexican American Political Organization (MAPA)

            Mexican American Student Association (MASA)

            Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MECHA)



            César Chávez (1927-1993), leader of farm workers

            Rodolfo (Corky) González (b. 1927)

            Reies López Tijerino (b. 1925)

            Enrique Cisneros, mayor, San Antonio

            Eduardo Roybal, Congressman from Los Angeles

Antonio Villaraigosa (, 1953 - present) elected mayor of Los Angeles; reelected 2009; chair of the Democratic Party National Convention 2012.





                        Alurista (1948-present): floricanto en aztlán

                        Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (1987)

                        Corky González, "I am Joaquín/ Yo soy Joaquín"

                        Luis Alberto Urrea (1955), “hymn to vatos who will never be in a poem,” in Vatos, 2000.

                        Gloria Velásquez, professor, California Polytechnic State University; author of I Used to Be a Superworman (1994), Xicana on the Run (2005). Note: Ms. Velázquez is playing a guitar given to her by WTL; she calls the guitar "Guillermo."


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                        Rodolfo Anaya, Bless Me Ultima, Heart of Aztlán; Cuentos/Tales of the Hispanic Southwest

                        Raymond Barrio, Plum Plum Pickers

                        Richard Vásquez, Chicano

                        José Antonio Villarreal, Pocho

                        Luis Alberto Urrea (1955), La hija de la Chuparrosa (2005), Queen of America (2011).



                        Luis Leal, Aztlán y México (1985)

                        Genaro Padilla, The Stories of Fray Angélico Chávez (1987)

                        Armando Rendón, Chicano Manifesto  (1971)

                        Gloria E. Anzaldúa: Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (1987)

            YOUTH FICTION:

                        Gloria Velásquez, professor, California Polytechnic State University, the Roosevelt High series of youth fiction (1994-2009).


                        José Montoya


                        Los Lobos




                        Luis Valdés, La bamba  (1987)

                        Cheech Marín, Born in East L.A.(1987)



                        Luis Valdés, El teatro campesino



                        Víctor Valle and Rudy Torres, Latino Metropolis (2000)

Gustavo Arellano, “How Mexican Food Became More American than Apple Pie,” Free Minds, Free Markets (June online issue, 2012; In this excellent article, Arellano says this: “That you have a nation (and increasingly a planet—you can find Mexican restaurants from Ulan Bator to Sydney to Prague) lusting after tequila, guacamole, and tres leches cake isn’t an exercise in culinary neocolonialism but something closer to the opposite. By allowing itself to be endlessly adaptable to local tastes, Mexican food has become a primary vehicle for exporting the culture of a long-ridiculed country to the far corners of the globe. Forget Mexico’s imaginary Reconquista of the American Southwest; the real conquest of North America is a peaceful and consensual affair, taking place one tortilla at a time.” See the linked .pdf textbook document: => Mexican Food.