Spain / España
Chronology and Information

 

COMMON FACTS :


POPULATION: 39,900,000

CAPITAL: Madrid (2,900,000); PP (Alberto Ruiz Gallardón, 2003-present); PSOE (Leguín, 1991-95); CDS, (Agustín Rodríguez  Sahagún, 1989-91); PSOE (Juan Barranco; 1986-89)

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: Spanish (national),

                        (regional)

                        Catalá (Catalan) / Catalunya (Catalonia)

                        Esquera (Basque) / País Vasco (Euskadi; Basque Region)

                        Galego (dialect of Portuguese) / Galicia

17 COMUNIDADES AUTONOMAS (autonomous regions/states): Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, País Vasco, Navarra, Aragón, La Rioja, Cataluña, Baleares, Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Madrid, Castilla y León, Extremadura, Andalucía, Murcia, Canarias (Ceuta y Melilla: ciudades españolas en la costa norte de Marruecos)

HISTORY:

 

Before the Common Era (B.C.E.)

 

*
1,500,000-100,000 (Lower Paleolithic) Human remains in Iberian Peninsula
*
800,000 Homo Antecessor at Gran Dolina in Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos): earliest hominids in Europe (distant ancestor to homo sapiens)
*
300,000 Sima de Huesos (near Gran Dolina): massive pit of Homo Antecessor bones.
*
100,000-40,000 (Paleolithic)  Neanderthals in caves in Peninsula
*
40,000-5,000 (Upper Paleolithic Age)  Cro-Magnons in caves
*
18,000 Cro-Magnon cave painting in Altamira (near Santander), El Pindal (Costa Verde in Asturias) and many other places
*
5,000-2,500 (Neolithic Age) First ceramic products in Iberia.
*
2,500-1,700 Megaliths especially in burial sites.
*
1,700-1,300 (Bronze Age) El Argar culture near Murcia
*
1,200-800

Arrival of Indo-Europeans including Iberians
Phoenicians establish Tartessos (near Cádiz)
Carthaginians (Phoenicians) establish Cartagena
Greeks establish Emporion (Empúries)
Iberians

*
Pre-800 Dominated by Iberians (establish Numancia, near Soria)
"Toros de Guisando" (near Talavera de la Reina)
*
800-400 Dominated by Celts (celtíberos)
*
400-200 Arrival of Greeks, Phoenecians and Carthaginians in coastal trading centers along Mediterranean.
*
237 Amílcar (Carthaginian) begins conquest of southern Ibernian Peninsula.
*
212-200 Roman conquest of religion, government, language.
*
154-133 Roman war against La Numancia (Celtíberos near Soria)
*
122 Balearic islands conquered by Roman military.
*
76 Gen. Gnaeus Popmpeious Magnus (Pompeyo, 106-48) becomes governor of Hispania Citerior (i.e., north)
*
61 Julius Caesar (Caius Julius; César; 100-44) becomes praetor of Hispania Ulterior (S.).
*
49 César defeats Pompeyo in battle of Ilerda (Lleida / Lérida)

                       
Common Era (C.E.)

            1 C.E. Construction of aqueducts in Segovia and Tarragona

            44                    Santiago's (St. James the Major's) body to Spain

            70                    Jews enter Spain en masse; result of Diaspora

            92                    Christianity enters Hispania

                                    Ascendancy of Hispanic intellectuals: Marcial, Lucano, Quintillian, Séneca

            96-98               Nerva (32-98), Roman emperor from Spain (first of Antoninos)

            98-117             Trajan (52-117), Roman emperor from Spain

            100                  Population: 6,000,000 to 7,000,000

                                    3 provinces: Lusitania, Baetica, Hispania Citerior

            117-138           Adrian (76-138), Roman emperor from Spain

            138-161           Tito Aurelio Fulvio (Antonino Pío, 86-161), Roman emperor from Spain

            161-180           Marcus Aurelius (120-180), Roman emperor from Spain & philosopher

            172                  Moors invade S. Hispanic (Bética)

            180-192           Comodus (Lucius Aurelius), unpopular Roman emperor from Spain and son of Marcus Aurelius

            212-409           Prominent part of Roman Empire

            314                  Hispania divided into provinces: Bética (Andalucía), Lusitania (Portugal), Carthaginiensis (Murcia / Castilla-La Mancha), Callĺcia (Galicia), Tarraconensis (Aragón-Catalunya), Mauritania Tingitania (Morroco)

            365                  Balearic Is. separate province

            409                  Conquest by : Suevos, Alanos, Vándalos

            409-711           Visigothic kingdom

            411                  Vándalos Silingos invaded Bética; Vándalos Asdingos invaded S. Calaecia; Suevos invaded W. Callaecia; Alanos invaded Lusitania and Cartaginense; Tarraconense remained completely Roman

            411                        Visigoths invade as allies of Rome and conquer whole peninsula

            429                        Vándalos leave Hispania and go to Africa

            456                  Teodorico II (Visigoth from Gaul) invades Hispania for Roman Empire: destroys the Suevos

            460                  Visigoths destroy Suevos in Galicia

            466                  Eurico (Visigothic king) extends reign to Gaul, Lusitania and Tarraconense

            475                  End of (Western) Roman Empire

            587                  Conversion to Catholicism by king Recaredo I

AL-ANDALUS

            711                  Conquest of Iberian Peninsula by North African Moslems (Arabic-speaking Berbers and Moors; Tariq)

            711-1492         Various Moslem kingdoms in Al Andalus

ASTURIAS

            711-718           Unconquered regions in Cantabrian mountains remain unorganized

            718-924           Asturias as independent Christian kingdom

            718                  Covadonga: First Christian victory of Reconquest by Pelayo over Alcama; Reconquest lasts until 1492

                                    (Gen. Francisco Franco and Pope John Paul II visit Covadonga)

GALICIA (PORTUGAL)      

            718                  Alfonso I de Asturias annexes Galicia-Portugal

CATALUNYA

            800                  Charlemagne makes Christian Catalunya into Marca Hispánica

GALICIA

            813                  Santiago's (Saint James; patron saint of Spain) body discovered in Compostela (i.e., Santiago de Compostela)

            844                  Battle of Clavijo ("the Peg") against Andalusian Muslims; Santiago intervenes

LEON-ASTURIAS

            924                  León conquers Asturias

ARAGON

            925                  Navarra conquers (Spanish-speaking) Aragón

CASTILLA

            943                  Castilla is independent county from León under Fernán González

AL-ANDALUS / SEFARAD

            993-1056         Semue'el ibn Nagrella ha-Nagid: first poet of "Golden Age" of Judeo-Andalusian poetry

NAVARRA (ARAGON)

            1000-1035       Sancho III el Mayor, strongest Peninsular king         

AL-ANDALUS / SEFARAD

            1001                Dominance in Al-Andalus of zealot Moslems (Almohades)

           c.1022-c.1058 Selomó ibn Gabirol, Judeo-Andalusian poet and philosopher (Málaga -> Córdoba -> Zaragoza -> Granada -> Valencia)

           1027                Al Andalus broken up into reinos de taifas

ARAGON

            1035                Aragón as separate kingdom under Ramiro

CASTILLA

            1035                Castilla is separate kingdom under Fernando I

GALICIA (PORTUGAL)

            1071                Alfonso VI de Castillia annexes Galicia (Portugal)

CASTILLA

            1083                Christian-Castillian reconquest of Madrid (Magerit)

            1085                Christian-Castillian reconquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI

            1094-1102       Conquest of Moslem Valencia by Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar - El Cid (d. 1099)

AL-ANDALUS / SEFARAD

            1135 - 1205     Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon / Rambam: Córdoba to Cairo): philosopher, physician; 1170-1180, Misheh Torah (Jewish law, in Hebrew); c. 1190, Guide for the Perplexed (faith and reason harmonized, in Arabic)

 

CATALUNYA

            1137                Catalunya joined to kingdom of Aragón by marriage

PORTUGAL

            1139                Portugal separates from Castilla leaving Galicia in Castilla-León

CASTILLA

            c.1140-1175    El Cantar de mio Cid  (Spain's major epic poem) is written

            1212                Castillian victory at  Las Navas de Tolosa (Alfonso VIII, El de Las Navas)

LEON

            1230                Kingdom of León united into kingdom of Castilla

ARAGON

            1232                Aragón - Catalunya conquers Balearic Islands

CASTILLA

            1236                Reconquest of Córdoba by Castilla (San Fernando III)

            1248                Reconquest of Sevilla by Castilla (San Fernando III)

            1256-74          Castillian King Alfonso X el Sabio: Translation school in Toledo

            c.1285             Composition of first version of Amadís de Gaula, masterpiece of all Spanish chivalric romances

ARAGON

            1282                Aragón - Catalunya conquers Sicilia

            1324                Aragón - Catalunya conquers Cerdeña

            1331                Jaime el Conquistador of Kingdom of Aragón conquers Mallorca from Arabs

CASTILLA

            1343                Juan Ruiz writes El libro de buen amor

            1348-51           Black plague throughout Spain

            1350-69          Rule of Pedro I El Cruel; murdered by half-brother, Enrique de Trastámara

            1369-79           Enrique II : first of the house of Trastámara in Castilla

HOUSE OF TRASTáMARA

            1369-1517       The house of Trastámara rules Castilla

            1379-1390       Juan I de Castilla y León: fought in vain to annex Portugal

            1388                Juan I de Castilla makes Asturias principado  as part of Castilla       

            1390-1402       Enrique III el doliente  de Castilla y León

            1391                Worst pogroms in history of Spain; massive conversions

            1402-1454       Juan II de Castilla: period of civil wars between monarchy and nobles

ARAGON

            1416-1458       Alfonso V el Magnánimo : his court neopolitan is a great centre of culture

            1442                Aragón - Catalunya conquers Nápoles

CASTILLA

            1454-1474       Enrique IV

            1468                Isabel's brother Alfonso dies and Enrique IV recognizes his half-sister Isabel as heir to throne against his daughter, Juan la Beltraneja

                                    (Pacto de Guisando)

CASTILLA and ARAGON

            1469                Isabel, princess  of Castilla marries Fernando II of Aragón  (V of Castilla); Enrique IV is upset, denies Pacto de Guisando, and civil war breaks out

ARAGON 

            1469                Fernando el Católico  becomes king of Sicilia

CASTILLA

            1474 -1504      Isabel I proclaims herself queen of Castilla (daughter of Juan II) in Segovia; succeeds brother Enrique IV;

            1474-1479       Civil war breaks out again when Juana la Beltraneja gets aid from Portugal   

            1474                Concordia de Segovia negotiates future harmony between Castilla y Aragón between Isabel and Fernando

            1476               Fernando I of Aragón (Isabel's husband) establishes the Santa Hermandad, a police organization that patrolled rural areas with the power of summary justice; later it was established in Castilla too.

            1477-1503       Pedro Berruguete and Juan de Flandes flourish (painting)

            1478                Isabel I establishes the Inquisition in Castilla

            1479                Fernando's troops defeat Juana la Beltraneja and Portugal

ARAGON 

            1479-1516       Fernando II (son of Juan II of Aragón) becomes king of Aragón;

THE TWO MONARCHIES ARE PARTIALLY UNITED CREATING SPAIN

CASTILLA-ARAGON (Las ESPAñAS)

            1492                Jan. 2 Granada surrendered by Bobadilla thus ending Moslem Arab presence in Iberia

                                    Aug. 3 Jews expelled from Spain and Colón (Columbus) sails from Palos to the Indies (edict signed March 31, 1492)

                                    Oct. 12 Cristóbal Colón and Martín Alonso Pinzón "discover" "The Indies"

                                    Antonio de Nebrija presents first grammar of a modern language (Spanish) to Isabel I

                                    Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo is writing Las sergas de Esplandián

            1493-1496       Columbus's second trip : discovers Puerto Rico

            1495                Canary Islands conquered

            1497                Melilla (Morroco) conquered

            1498-1500       Columbus's third trip: discovers more islands and South America

            1499                Fernando de Rojas writes La Celestina

            1502-1504       Columbus's fourth trip : discovers Central America

            1504                Isabel I dies leaving thrown of Castilla to son Felipe I (El Hermoso)

            1506                Felipe dies leaving thrown of Castilla to father Fernando (V of Castilla)

                                    Columbus dies in Valladolid

            1506-1516       Spain conquers Orán, Bujía and Tripoli (North Africa)

            1508                Amadís de Gaula  by Rodríguez de Montalvo published posthumously

            1510                Esplandián  by Rodríguez de Montalvo published posthumously

NAVARRA

            1512                Fernando V conquers Navarra and unites it into Spain

ESPAñA

            1516                Fernando V dies leaving regency to Cardinal Cisneros; The Polyglot Bible published by  Cisneros (1514-17)

            1517                 Carlos, grandson of los reyes católicos  becomes king Carlos I of Spain

                                     Martin Luther begins the Reformation (in Germany)

HOUSE OF HAPSBURG

            1517-1700       CASA DE HABSBURGO (Hapsburg) in Spain

            1519                Carlos I becomes Karl V (Carlos V) of the Holy Roman Empire

            1519-1521       Hernán Cortés conquers Aztec Empire in México

            1519-1522       Fernando de Magalhães and Juan del Cano circumnavigate the globe

            1530                Francisco Pizarro conquers Incas in Perú

            1540                Francisco de Montejo conquers Mayas in Yucatán

            1541                Loyola founds Jesuit Order

            1545-1563       Council of Trent ends with Spain beginning the Counter-Reformation

            1553                Edición sefardita en lengua ladina (sefardita) en Ferrara, Italia, de la Biblia de Ferrara 

            1547-1616       Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

            1555                Lazarillo de Tormes  (picaresque novel) appears

            1556                Carlos I(V) abdicates in favor of his son Felipe II; Carlos dies 1559

            1571                 Prince Don Juan de Austria (Felipe's half-brother) wins battle of Lepanto

            1575-1580       Cervantes held captive in Algiers

            1587-1580       Fray Luis de León imprisoned by Inquisition in Castilla

PORTUGAL

            1580                Portugal and Portuguese Empire integrated into Spain upon death of Portugal's king

ESPAñA

            1588                Spain's Invincible Armada defeated in English Channel by weather and Francis  Drake

            1598                Felipe II dies; Felipe III assumes throne

            1605                Cervantes publishes first part of Don Quixote

            1609                Moors expelled from Spain

            1615                Cervantes publishes second part of Don Quixote

            1618-1648       Thirty Years War waged by the Conde Duque de Olivares

            1621                Felipe III dies; Felipe IV assumes throne

            1620                Tirso de Molina writes El burlador de Sevilla  (Don Juan Tenorio)

            1630                Pedro Calderón de la Barca writes La vida es sueño

PORTUGAL

            1640-1659       Portugal revolts against Spain;

CATALUNYA

1640-59   civil war in Cataluña
  1648                Treaty of Westphalia ends 30 Years War; Spain loses Milano, Franche ComtŽ, Holland

            1659                Spain loses Portugal

ESPAñA

            1665                Felipe IV dies; Carlos II assumes throne

            1681                Calderón  dies; arbitrary ending date of Spain's Golden Age  (siglo de oro  )

            1700                Carlos II dies without Hapsburg heirs

            1701-1715       War of Spanish succession between Philippe d'Anjou (Bourbon) and Karl of  Austria (Hapsburg)

            1714                Peace of Utrecht; Spain loses Jamaica, Belgium, Gibraltar, Sicilia, Savoya, Menorca

HOUSE OF BOURBON (1714 - 1868; 1874 - 1931; 1975 - present)

                                    Felipe V accepted as king of Spain; beginning of house of Borbón (Casa de Borbón)

            1714                Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española ) founded

            1746                Felipe V dies

                                    Fernando VI assumes throne

                                    Francisco de Goya born

            1759                Fernando VI dies

                                    Carlos III assumes throne

            1767                Jesuits exiled from all territories in Spanish Empire

                                    Franciscans replace Jesuits

            1769                Spanish conquest of California by Junípero Serra

            1788                Carlos III dies

                                    Carlos IV assumes throne

            1789                French Revolution begins

            1792-1808       Manuel Godoy is Prime Minister and virtual dictator of Spain

            1805                Naval defeat of Trafalgar (Lord Nelson triumphs)

            1808                José Napoleón installed as king of Spain

            1808                May 2, popular rising in Madrid against French invaders; beginning of guerilla war

            1810                Cortes de Cádiz; Constitution produced in 1812; Goya's Desastres de la guerra

                                    Beginning of wars of independence in Latin America (until 1825 or 1898)

            1814                Napoleón defeated

                                    Fernando VII retored as king

            1820                Rising by General Riego (liberal favoring democracy)

                                    proclamation of Constitution of 1812

            1823                France invades and restores Fernando VII's absolutist regime

            1824                Battle of Ayacucho (Perú): Simón Bolívar (Venezuela) defeats Spain's troops in northern South America

            1833                Fernando VII dies

                                    María Cristina becomes regent for Isabel II

                                    First Carlist War led by Fernando VII's brother, Carlos

            1837                New Constitution (liberal)

            1843-1920       Benito Pérez Galdós (realist novelist)

            1844                Isabel II assumes throne; Guardia Civil established

            1851-1901       Leopoldo Alas (Clarín) (naturalist novelist)

            1868                Revolution of September; Isabel II exiled; junta

            1868                Under the provisional government, Spain adopts the peseta as the official unit of currency.

            1871-1873       Amadeo de Saboya king

            1872                Third Carlist War

FIRST SPANISH REPUBLIC (1873)

            1873                First Republic (five presidents in eleven months; ended by military coup)

            1874                Alf\onso XII restores constitutional monarchy

            1880-1973       Pablo Picasso (painter)

            1885                Alfonso XII dies; María Cristina regentess

                                    Clarín publishes La  regenta

            1888                Galdós publishes Fortunata y Jacinta  

            1898                Spanish-American War: USA defeats Spain’s forces in Cuba and Filipinas

                                    Spain loses: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Filipinas, Guam, and many more islands

                                    Beginning of Generation of '98: Unamumo, Machado, Baroja, Valle-Inclán, Picasso, Ortega y Gasset, and others

            1899-1936       Federico García Lorca (poet and playwright)

            1902                Alfonso XIII assumes throne

            1909                Anarchists cause La Semana Trágica (riots) in Barcelona

            1909-1926       War in Africa (Morroco)

            1923-1930       Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera under the king

            1927                Beginning of Generation of '27: García Lorca, Alberti, Dalí, Buñuel, Salinas

SECOND SPANISH REPUBLIC (1931 - 1939)

            1931-1939       Second Republic with new constitution

            1936-1939       Civil War under Gen. Francisco Franco

            1937                Picasso paints "Guernica"

DICTATORSHIP OF FRANCO (1939 - 1975)

            1939-1975       Dictatorship of General Francisco Franco

            1940-1950      Decade of misery, hunger, and underdevelopment: the "años de hambre"

            1950                U.S. diplomatic recognition of Franco's regime; American military bases in Spain

            1951               Spain emits a one-peseta bank note with a very doleful Don Quixote on its face, unintentionally representative of the misery of the 40's:


CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY (1975 - present)

            1975                Franco dies; Constitutional Monarchy restored under Juan Carlos de Borbón

                                    Adolfo Suárez leads first democratic government

            1978                Constitution

            1978-1982       Calvo Sotelo, conservative president

NAVARRA

            1982                Navarra concludes law with Spain making it La Comunidad Foral de Navarra

ESPAñA

            1982-1995       Felipe González, socialist president

            1988                Oct.     Queen Elizabeth II (UK), first English head of state ever to visit Spain

                                    Oct.     Margaret Thatcher (UK), first English prime minister ever to visit Spain

                                    Dec. 14            General Strike by labor unions

            1989                Jan. 13             France captures head of ETA, José Antonio Urrutikoetxea Bengoetxea (Josu Ternera)

                                    Jun. 15 Elections to European Parliament (PSOE 40%; PP 21%; CDS 7%; Izquierda Unida 6%; Convergencia i Unió 4%, 27 other parties the balance including Falange 0.15%) (60 deputies/diputados)

            1993                June                 Felipe González reelected to fourth term as president

                                                PSOE forms first coalition government with nationalist parties

            1995                March  Luis Roldán, former director of Guardia Civil extradited from Thailand on corruption charges

            1997                June                 José María Aznar elected president: PP wins plurality in Congress and governs with center-left coalition

            1998-1999       Truce between ETA and central Spanish national government

            1999-2003       Summer: Cal Poly holds Valladolid Study Program in Valladolid

            2000                Aznar re-elected president

                                    PP wins absolute majority in Congress

                                    PSOE suffers large defeat while allied with IU; IU in political disarray

            2002          January: Spain converts monetary base from the peseta (see: 1868) to the euro, thus joining the European Union's monetary system.

            2003          Spain participates in USA-initiated Iraq War with military assistance (90% public disapproval of government decision)

            2004         11 March: largest terrorist attack in Spain's history: Al Qaeda sets off 10 bombs in three train stations in and near Madrid, one of which is Atocha, at about 7:30 a.m. killing 200 and wounding 1,400.


 

                            12 March: 11,000,000 of Spain's 40,000,000 citizens participate in the largest public demonstration in Spain's history (against terrorism and in solidarity with victims)

                            13 March: Spain holds national elections; José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (aka Zapatero) and PSOE win national elections (PSOE, 42%--164 seats in Congreso; PP, 37%--148 seats); click on photo link to a brief Web-based biography of Zapatero:


2004 16 April Zapatero (PSOE) is invested fifth president of the consitutional monarchy; in the photo from El País Aznar (PP) shakes his hand in the Congreso.
   
2005 June

Spain's Congress liberalizes national divorce law.
Spain's Contress liberalizes marriage law by granting homosexuals the same marriage rights as heterosexual couples.
Regional election in Galicia: the PP loses its absolute majority in the Xunta de Galicia; the PSOE and the PNG (nationalist Gallician party) form a government; therefore, Fraga Iribarne, the former president and former ally of Franco, loses power for the first time, symbolically bringing the Franco era to an end.

2011 May Regional and municipal elections won massively by PP; big losses for PSOE; Rodríguez Zapatero remains president until 2012.

 

GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary Monarchy with king, president and parliament

                        (Bicameral Congress: Cámara de Diputados y El Senado)

KING: Juan Carlos (de Borbón) since 1975:

                        son of Juan de Borbón (who was never king)

                        grandson of Alfonso XIII (1885-1930)

                        married to Sofía, daughter of Constantine (last king of Greece)

                        principal heir, Andrés, Príncipe de Asturias

PRESIDENT: José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, leader of Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) (center-left party, moderate socialist, actively progressive), born 1948

President since 2004

PRESIDENT'S CABINET:

(SEMI-)AUTONOMOUS REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS:

                        Generalitat de Catalunya; Jordi Pujol, president

                        Generalitat (Valencia)

                        Xunta (Galicia), Fraga Iribarni, president

                        Euskadi (El País Vasco), José Antonio Ardanza, lehendakari

                        Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid

                        Comunidad de Andalucía

PRINCIPAL POLITICAL PARTIES, UNIONS, and POWER GROUPS: (Web resource: http://countrystudies.us/spain/83.htm)

UNIONS:

ETA (Euskadi Ta Asquerra; Basque separatist terrorist organization)

PRINCIPAL LIVING INTELLECTUALS:

            Poets:   Angel González (d. 2002)

                        Rafael Alberti (d. 2002)

                        Carlos Rodríguez (1921-1999)

                        Leopoldo María Panero (1948, Madrid)

                        Carlos Barral

                        Pere Gemferrer (Catalá)

                        Gabriel Celaya

            Novelists: Camilo José Cela, La familia de Pascual Duarte  (1942); Nobel Prize, 1989 (d. 2002)

                        Juan Goytisolo,  Señas de identidad  (1962)

                        Ana María Matute, Crónica del alba (1962)

                        Juan Marsé, Cinco horas con Mario

                        Miguel Delibes, Las ratas  (1955)

                        Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio, El Jarama  (1955)

                        Jorge Semprún (1930-),   El largo viaje   (1963, Premio Formentor)

                                                             Autobiografía de Federico Sánchez  (1977, Premio Seix Barral)

                                                            Un beau dimanche   (1981)

                                                            Netchaiev ha vuelto  (1988)

                        Andrés Trapiello (1950- ), La tinta simpática  (1988)

                        Antonio Muñoz Molina (1955- ), Beltenebros  (Seix Barral, 1988)

                                                            El invierno en Lisboa

                                                            Beatus ille

                        Eduardo Mendoza (1943-  ), La ciudad inaudita  (Seix Barral, 1989)

                        Daniel Múgica (1967-   ), Uno se vuelve loco  (1989)

                        Julio Llamares, La lluvia amarilla

                                                Luna de lobos

                        Luis Mateo Díez, La fuente de la edad

                        Juan José Millás, El desorden de tu nombre

                        A. Gándara, La media distancia

                        Arturo Pérez Reverte: Las aventuras del capitán Alatorre

                                                            La piel del tambor

                                                            El maestro de esgrima

                                                            El Club Dumas

            Dramatists:      Antonio Buero Vallejo, En la ardiente oscuridad  (1952)

            Theater:           Nuria Espert, director

                                    Alfonso Marsillach, director (d. 2002)

            Philosophers: José María Aranguren

                                    Julián Marías, La antropología metafísica

                                    María Zambrano (1900-89)

            Cinematographers:

                        Carlos Saura:

                                    Bodas de Sangre ,

                                    Carmen ,

                                    Cría Cuervos

                                    La  Caza        

                                    Deprisa, deprisa  (1980),

                                    La noche oscura  (1988)

                                    El dorado

                                    Tango

                                    Flamencop

                        Berenguer

                        Pedro Almodóvar (Calzada de Calatrava, 1950-),

                                    Entre tinieblas

                                    Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del montón

                                    Laberinto de pasiones  (1982)

                                    Matador 

                                    La ley del deseo

                                    ¿Qué he hecho yo para merecer esto?  (1985)          

                                    Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios  (1988)

                                    Atame  (1990)

                        José Luis Berlanga

                        Luis Buñuel (1902-83),

                                    Viridiana  (1949)

                                    Los Olvidados  (1953)

                                    Tristana  (1968)

                        Gonzalo Suárez,

                                    Remando al viento  (1988, 12 film prizes)

            Singers: Plácido Domingo (opera)

                                    Victoria de los Angeles (opera)

                                    José Carreras (opera)

                                    Montserrat Caballé (opera)

                                    Julio Iglesias (popular)

                                    Rafael (popular)

                                    Ana Belén (popular)

                                    Joan Manuel Serrat (folk / popular)

                                    Mecano (popular rock)

Various Spanish Flags

 

Galicia
El País Vasco / Euskadi
Catalunya
Madrid

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brenan, Gerald, The Spanish Labyrinth; an Account of the Social and Political Background of the   Spanish Civil War  (second ed.), Cambridge, England: University Press,1950

Carr, Raymond, Spain; Dictatorship to Democracy  (2nd ed.), London: Allen and Unwin,1981.

Crow, John, Spain: the Root and the Flower; a History of the Civilization of Spain and the Spanish People (rev. ed.), New York: Harper and Row, 1984.

Elliot, John,  Imperial Spain, 1469-1716 . London: E. Arnold, 1963.

Graham, Robert, Spain, A Nation Comes of Age . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984.

Herr, Richard, Spain.  Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Hooper, John, The Spaniards; a Portrait of the New Spain .  New York: Penguin Books, Viking Penguin, Inc., 1986.

Jackson, Gabriel, A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War . New York: Thames-Hudson, 1974.

Laín Entralgo, Pedro, A qué llamamos España : Madrid, Austral, 1971.

Vicens-Vives, Jaime, Aproximación a la historia de España . Barcelona: Editorial Vicens-Vives, 1962.

Vilar, Pierre, Spain: A Brief History (2nd ed.). Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1977.